What is Computer Virus ? Types of Virus | Ways to avoid Virus


What is a Computer Virus ? How many types of computer viruses are there ? Why do viruses enter in computers ? And what are the ways to protect against viruses? These are all questions that must come to your mind as a computer user.

In today’s time, everyone is familiar with the name ‘virus’. Because since the arrival of the coronavirus, even if someone does not know about computer viruses, they have definitely learned about viruses. But today we will talk about computer viruses. For example, just as a virus is harmful to the human body, which after entering the body, damages the body through many diseases, in the same way, a computer virus can also damage both the hardware and software of your computer.

Friends, if a computer virus enters your computer once, it can also destroy your system files and important data. This can slow down the speed of your computer. So friends, in today’s post, we will provide you with all the information related to computer viruses, such as what is a computer virus, how many types of computer viruses are there, and all the information related to viruses. You just have to read this post carefully till the end.

What is Computer virus ?

The full form of Computer Virus is “Vital Information Resources Under Seize“. It is a type of software program designed to delete or damage computer system software programs and data. These viruses can enter your computer without your knowledge and can cause damage to your important files, hard drive, operating system, and software.

One advantage of these viruses is that they slowly grow in your computer after entering it. Some computer viruses work to give access to your data to hackers, while others work to automatically install software in your computer.

What is malware ?

The full form of “Malware” is “Malicious software“. It is also a software program that causes harm to a computer. Malware refers to software that is intentionally created to cause harm to your computer, but there are some software programs that do not intend to harm your computer, yet still cause damage once they are installed. Malware is a type of virus that can easily enter a computer through the internet.

This is because people tend to use free software, game applications, and pirated software which are readily available on the internet, leading to the entry of viruses into the computer. Additionally, viruses can also spread through offline sources such as CDs, DVDs, and pen drives, from one computer to another.

Types of Computer Virus

There are several types of computer viruses, including:

Boot Sector Virus:

This type of virus infects the boot sector of a computer’s hard drive or a floppy disk. When the computer starts up, the virus loads itself into memory and can effect other drives or files on the system.

File Infectors:

These viruses attach themselves to executable files such as .exe or .com files. When the effected file is run, the virus code also runs, allowing the virus to replicate and spread to other files.

Macro Virus:

This virus is embedded in macro-enabled documents such as Microsoft Word or Excel files. When the user opens the document, the virus code is executed, and the virus can replicate and spread to other documents.

Worms : 

A worm is a standalone program that spreads over the network, replicating itself and potentially causing harm to computer systems. Unlike viruses, worms do not require a host file to attach themselves to and spread.

Trojan Horse :

This type of virus disguises itself as a legitimate program, tricking the user into running it. Once the Trojan is executed, it can perform malicious actions such as stealing sensitive information or opening a backdoor for remote access.

Ransomware :

This type of virus encrypts the user’s files and demands payment (usually in cryptocurrency) to decrypt them. Ransomware is often spread through phishing emails or malicious downloads.


These types of viruses are designed to collect personal information about the user or display unwanted advertisements. Adware and spyware are often bundled with free software downloads or disguised as legitimate browser extensions.

Directory Virus:

Directory virus is a type of computer virus that infects directory files, such as the root directory or subdirectories, on a computer’s hard drive. Once the virus infects these files, it can cause damage to the entire file system, leading to data loss and system crashes. Directory viruses can be spread through infected files, email attachments, or downloaded software. To prevent directory virus infections, it is important to use antivirus software and avoid downloading files or software from untrusted sources.

Direct Action Virus :

Direct Action Virus is a type of computer virus that gets executed whenever an infected file or program is executed. It typically resides in the computer’s memory and attaches itself to executable files in the current directory or folder. When the effected program runs, the virus effects other executable files in the same directory. Direct Action Viruses do not spread to other directories or folders, and they usually do not damage the system or alter its functionality.

Resident Virus :

Resident viruses are a type of computer virus that embeds themselves in the computer’s memory and execute whenever the operating system is running. They infect files and applications when they are opened or executed and can remain hidden in the background without the user’s knowledge. The resident virus can continue to effect files until the antivirus program detects and removes it from the system.

Partition table virus :

Partition table virus is a type of virus that infects the partition table of a hard disk. It overwrites the existing partition table with a new one, causing the computer to be unable to boot or access any data on the hard drive. This virus can spread rapidly throughout a network or system and can be difficult to remove, often requiring a complete re-installation of the operating system and all software.

Overwrite Virus :

Overwrite virus is a type of computer virus that overwrites data on a file or a hard disk, rendering the original data inaccessible. This virus typically spreads by copying itself to different files or programs and then effecting them. The overwrite virus can cause significant damage to a computer’s data and is often difficult to detect and remove.

Polymorphic Virus :
Polymorphic viruses are a type of virus that can change their code or signature with each infection to evade detection by antivirus software. They are designed to mutate and create multiple versions of themselves, making it difficult for antivirus programs to identify them as malicious. Polymorphic viruses use a variety of techniques to accomplish this, including encryption, decryption, and code obfuscation.

Rootkit Virus :

Rootkit virus is a type of malware that allows unauthorized access to a computer system or network and hides its presence from users and security software by replacing or modifying system files and processes. It enables attackers to gain privileged access to the system and steal sensitive information, install additional malware, or use the system for malicious purposes without being detected. Rootkit virus is difficult to detect and remove as it can resist traditional antivirus software and security measures.-+*

It’s important to have anti-virus software installed on your computer and keep it updated to protect against these types of threats.

What are the reasons for the spread of computer virus?

There are several reasons why computer viruses spread:

  1. Human behavior: People often engage in risky online behavior, such as downloading files from untrustworthy sources, clicking on suspicious links, or opening email attachments from unknown senders.
  2. Software vulnerabilities: Software and operating systems can have weaknesses or bugs that can be exploited by hackers to introduce viruses or other malware into a system.
  3. Outdated software: When software or operating systems are not updated regularly, they can become vulnerable to attack, as new vulnerabilities are discovered and exploited by hackers.
  4. Pirated software: Downloading or installing pirated software can often come bundled with viruses or other malicious software.
  5. Infected external devices: External devices such as USB drives or external hard drives can also be a source of virus infections if they have been infected on another computer.
  6. Drive-by downloads: Visiting a compromised website can trigger a “drive-by download” which will install malware on the computer without the user’s knowledge or consent.
  7. Social engineering: Hackers can use social engineering tactics such as phishing emails, fake websites, or fake pop-up messages to trick users into installing malware on their computer.
  8. Malicious insiders: In some cases, insiders with access to a system may deliberately introduce malware or viruses for malicious purposes.
  9. Due to internet : The biggest reason for computer viruses in a computer is the internet. However, our work cannot be done without the internet. But if we use the internet correctly, there is no danger of a virus from the internet. The main reason for viruses coming from the internet is downloading pirated software, games, movies, etc. and reaching one computer from another computer.
  10. Due to lack of antivirus updates: When antivirus software is not updated regularly, it can become outdated and unable to detect and remove new viruses. This can leave a computer vulnerable to infection and increase the risk of spreading viruses to other devices. It is important to regularly update antivirus software to ensure maximum protection against the latest threats.

Damage from Computer Virus

Computer viruses can cause various types of damage to a system, including:

  • Data loss: A virus can delete or corrupt important files, causing permanent damage or data loss.
  • System crashes: A virus can cause a system to crash or become unresponsive, which can result in loss of work and productivity.
  • Theft of personal information: Some viruses are designed to steal sensitive information like credit card numbers, passwords, and other personal data.
  • Slow system performance: A virus can slow down a system by taking up resources or running in the background, making it difficult to use.
  • Spread to other systems: Some viruses are designed to spread from one system to another, causing widespread damage across a network.
  • Financial damage: A virus can cause financial damage to individuals and organizations by stealing money, causing system downtime, and other related issues.
  • Identity theft: Some viruses are designed to steal personal information and use it for identity theft or other malicious purposes.

Ways to avoid computer virus

Here are some ways to avoid computer viruses:

  1. Use Antivirus Software: Install a reputable antivirus software and keep it updated to protect your computer from viruses and other malware.

  2. Keep Your Operating System Updated: Make sure that your operating system is updated with the latest security patches and updates to avoid any vulnerabilities.

  3. Be Careful with Email Attachments: Do not open email attachments from unknown sources or emails that appear suspicious, even if they come from someone you know.

  4. Be Cautious When Downloading Files: Download files only from reputable websites and avoid downloading pirated software, music, or movies.

  5. Use a Firewall: A firewall can help prevent unauthorized access to your computer and network.

  6. Disable AutoRun: Disable AutoRun for external devices such as USB drives and CDs to prevent the automatic execution of malware.

  7. Use Strong Passwords: Use strong and unique passwords for all your accounts and change them frequently.

  8. Back Up Your Data: Regularly back up important files to an external hard drive or cloud storage to avoid losing data in case of a virus or other malware attack.

  9. Be Cautious on Social Media: Be careful with links and attachments shared on social media, as they may contain malware.

  10. Educate Yourself: Keep yourself informed about the latest threats and best practices for staying safe online.

People Ask Question 

Q. What is a computer virus in short answer?

Ans. A computer virus is a type of malicious software that can self-replicate and spread to other computers. It can cause damage to the computer system by deleting files, stealing personal information, or corrupting data. Viruses can infect a computer through various means, such as email attachments, software downloads, or infected external devices. It is important to have up-to-date antivirus software and to be cautious when downloading or opening files from unknown sources to prevent virus infections.

Q. What is computer virus with one example?

Ans. A computer virus is a type of malicious software that is designed to replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. It can cause harm to a computer system by damaging files, stealing personal information, and disrupting normal system functions. One example of a computer virus is the “ILOVEYOU” virus that emerged in 2000, which was spread through email attachments and caused widespread damage to computer systems worldwide.

Q. What are the 3 types of viruses? short answer

Ans. The three types of viruses are:
01. File Infector Virus
02. Boot Sector Virus
03. Macro Virus

Q. Which is the first computer virus?

Ans. The first computer virus was “Creeper” created by Bob Thomas in 1971. It was an experimental self-replicating program and was designed to infect DEC PDP-10 mainframe computers running the TENEX operating system.

Q. What is another name for virus?

Ans. Another name for virus is “malware”, which is short for malicious software. This term is used to refer to any software that is designed to harm or exploit computer systems without the user’s knowledge or consent.

Q. How many types of computer virus are there?

Ans. There are many types of computer viruses, such as Macro Virus, Directory Virus, File Infectors virus, Boot Virus, Direct Action Virus, Resident Virus, Partition table virus, Overwrite Virus, Polymorphic Virus, Browser High jack Virus, and Rootkit Virus.


So, friends, now you have received complete information about computer virus, what is a computer virus? What are the types of computer viruses and what are the ways to avoid these viruses? If you still have any problems related to computer viruses, you can ask in the comments, and I will provide you with complete help. And friends, do share this article with your friends so that they can also get the correct information about viruses. Thank you.



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